（molecular markers and signaling pathway）
Akt Signaling Pathway
The Akt signaling pathway plays a key role in the mediation of protein synthesis, metabolism, proliferation and cell cycle progression. It may be referred to as a ‘pro-survival’ pathway.
AMPK Signaling Pathway
AMPK signaling pathway plays an important role in the cellular response to low levels of available ATP, often caused by stresses such as heat shock, ischemia or hypoxia.
Apoptosis Signaling Pathway
Apoptosis is a physiological process for cell death that is critical during aging and development. It may also be referred to as cell “suicide”. Apoptosis can be triggered by events both inside and outside of the cell.
Estrogen Signaling Pathway
Estrogen is a steroid hormone that is responsible for the regulation of growth, differentiation and function of the reproductive system. Estrogen signaling is often dysregulated in breast cancer and osteoporosis.
Insulin Signaling Pathway
Signaling through the insulin pathway is fundamental for the regulation of intracellular glucose levels. This pathway can become dysregulated in diabetes.
JAK-STAT Signaling Pathway
The JAK-STAT signaling pathway has several roles, including the control of cell proliferation and hematopoiesis. It is the main signal transduction cascade from cytokine receptors.
MAPK Signaling Pathway
The mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway evokes an intracellular signaling cascade in response to extracellular stimuli such as heat and stress. It can influence cell division,
metabolism and survival.
mTOR Signaling Pathway
mTOR is a serine/threonine kinase that nucleates at multiprotein complexes mTORC1 and mTORC2. Signaling by these complexes regulatescell growth, proliferation and survival.
NF-κB Signaling Pathway
NF-κB signaling plays an important role in inflammation, the innate and adaptive immune response and stress. Dysregulated signaling can occur in inflammatory and autoimmune diseases.
Notch Signaling Pathway
The Notch pathway is involved in determination of cell fate, regulation of pattern formation and other developmental settings. Disrupted signaling can cause developmental defects and a range of adult pathologies.
p53 Signaling Pathway
p53 signaling plays an important role in the co-ordination of the cellular response different types of stress such as DNA damage andhypoxia. The downstream signals lead to apoptosis, senescence and cell cycle arrest.
TGF-β Signaling Pathway
The TGF-β signaling pathway is involved in the regulation of growth and proliferation of cells along with migration, differentiation and apoptosis.
Toll-like Receptor Signaling Pathway
TLR signaling is involved in the cellular response to threatening molecules such as bacteria and viruses. It results in an inflammatory and immmunological response.
VEGF Signaling Pathway
VEGF signaling pathway is involved in embryonic vascular development (vasculogenesis) and in the formation of new blood vessel (angiogenesis). It also induces cell migration, proliferation and survival.
Wnt Signaling Pathway
The Wnt pathway is involved in cellular differentiation and proliferation in adult tissues and also during embryogenesis. Disturbances within the pathway may lead to the formation of tumorsand promote metastasis.